Arnarbæli is a district in Ölfus and from the 12th century up until the beginning of the 20th century it was one of the best fields in Iceland to produce hey. Now there are large ruins from the old farm at Arnarbæli that are protected. Due to the wetlands around Arnarbæli you will find many interesting bird species in the area such as a Eurasian Oystercatcher, a Red-necked Phalarope and a Eurasian Wigeon.
Birds of South Iceland is a program offering excellent year-round services for birdwatchers. South Iceland has a great deal to offer visiting birdwatchers with its wide variety of habitats, including wetlands, seabird colonies, highland oases and unique coastlines. The largest colonies of puffins, pink-footed geesese and great skuas in the world are located within this region, together with Europe's largest leach's storm-petrel colony. South Iceland has a wide range of accommodation from camp sites to 4-star hotels and some within a short driving distance from Reykjavik.
Hornafjörður and Skarðsfjörður are shallow fjords or coastal lagoons on either side of the village of Höfn. The area is home to large numbers of birds all year around. Not only is it an important staging area on migration, but breeding birds are well represented in spring and summer and it is also the region's main wintering area for birds. A rich mosaic of wetlands stretches from Höfn all the way west to the glacial sands of Breiðamerkursandur.
The bird life of the great glacial sands of the south coast has a character all of its own. It is the kingdom of the great skua and is home to the largest colony of this charismatic species on Earth. Wherever there is sufficient water, vegetation sprouts up and attracts a range of birds. The spectacular Skaftafell in Vatnajökull National Park contains woodlands and a variety of species.
The areas Landbrot and Meðal-land support a wide range of birds. The region's wetlands are varied and include flood-meadows, lakes, springs, streams and lava fields. Breeding birds include horned grebe and various ducks. The freshwater springs attract numerous birds in the winter and form important wintering grounds for barrow's goldeneye, common goldeneye and goosander. White-fronted geese are common visitors on spring and autumn passage. Great skuas are conspicuous on the glacial sands.
The valley of Mýrdalur is a rich birding area, with Reynisfjall, Reynisdrangar and Dyrhólaey the chief birding sites. Puffins breed on the cliffs at Víkurhamrar above the village of Vík (the furthest colony from the sea in the world), on Reynisfjall mountain and the headland Dyrhólaey, while common guillemot and razor-bill breed at the sea stacks Reynisdrangar and at Dyrhólaey. There is a huge arctic tern colony at Vík and a smaller one at Dyrhólaey.
Þjórsárver to the south of the glacier Hofsjökull is the most expansive oasis in the central highlands. It is an area of spectacular scenery, with rich swathes of vegetation alternating with barren sands and glaciers. The area represents very important breeding and moulting grounds for pink-footed geese. Other breeders include the great northern diver, the whooper swan, the long-tailed duck, the purple sandpiper, the red-necked phalarope, the arctic tern and the snow bunting. Part of Þjórsárver is protected and a Ramsar site.
Another key birding location in the highlands is the chain of lakes called Veiðivötn. This beautiful and unusual landscape has been shaped by repeated volcanic activity and most of the lakes are located in craters. Great northern divers are particularly common, and other breeding birds include the whooper swan, the pink-footed goose, the scaup, the long-tailed duck, the harlequin duck, the ringed plover, the purple sandpiper, the arctic tern and the
snow bunting. Barrow's goldeneye winters here and has recently bred.
Lakes, ponds and marshes can be found across the lowland areas of Landeyjar and Rangarárvellir. Some of the best birding sites are the lake Skúmsstaðavatn and surroundings, Oddaflóð (protected) and lake Lambhagavatn. Large numbers of wildfowl and waders breed in the area and pass through in the spring and autumn.
Two of the larger lakes in the area, Apavatn and Laugarvatn, along with adjoining wetlands and rivers, are among the best sites for ducks in south Iceland. Barrow's goldeneye, common goldeneye and goosander winter here. Harlequin ducks breed locally and hundreds of scaup, tufted duck and red-breasted merganser stop off on passage and are also common breeders.
Sogið, the river which flows out of lake Þingvallavatn, is one of Iceland's best locations for winter ducks. It is home to the largest flock of barrow's goldeneye outside Mývatn and is the main winter site for the common goldeneye in Iceland. Goosander, red-breasted merganser and tufted duck are common. White-tailed eagles are often seen in winter and harlequin ducks move up the river in spring. Lake Þingvallavatn itself is known for its breeding great northern divers.
The coastline between the mouths of the great glacial rivers Ölfusá and Þjórsá is the largest lava shoreline in Iceland and forms the southern end of the vast Þjórsárhraun lava field which flowed 8,000 years ago and is the largest post ice age lava flow on Earth. Inland there are myriad lakes and ponds. The area hosts an array of birds all year and it is of particular importance for migrants such as knot, dunlin, sanderling, turnstone, brent goose, Eurasian wigeon and various other ducks.
On either side of the estuary of the river Ölfusá there are two large wetlands: BirdLife Iceland's reserve at Flói on the east bank, and Ölfusforir on the west bank. Both are large expanses of pools and lakes which attract numerous birds in the breeding season and on passage alike. The red-throated diver is the characteristic bird of the Flói reserve and dunlin and black-tailed godwit are particularly common here. Ölfusforir is an excellent birding location in winter, attracting large flocks of teal, mallard and goosander, as well as Iceland's largest concentration of the grey heron.
The main lagoon measures about 7 square miles (20 km2) and until 1932 was covered in thick glacial ice. Then the glacier started to retreat, and nowadays more than 300 feet (100 m) of ice breaks away each year to reshape the lagoon and fill it with spectacular icebergs.
The lagoon is open to the sea and so contains a mixture of salt and freshwater, giving it a unique blue-green color. There are hundreds of seals here in the winter and the lagoon supports many species of fish including krill, herring, trout and, occasionally, salmon.
Fantastic canyon, very narrow around 2 km. long and ends in a beatiful waterfall. Easy hike where you can enjoy nature, birdlife and of course cold, clean mountain water.
Northwest to the town of Eyrarbakki, is a wetland area rich in birdlife. The reserve has walking paths and a bird hide, and idel spot for bird watching. The Flói Bird Reserve is listed in the Bird Life international Association.